1.Principle of outer coating type antistatic agent
When such an antistatic agent is added to water, the hydrophilic group in the antistatic agent molecule is inserted into the water, and the lipophilic group extends to the air. When polymer materials are impregnated with this solution, the lipophilic groups in the molecules of the antistatic agent are adsorbed on the surface of the material. On the surface of the polymer material after drying after the impregnation, the hydrophilic groups in the antistatic agent molecules are aligned towards the air side, and it is easy to absorb environmental moisture, or combine with the moisture in the air through hydrogen bonding to form a The single-molecule conductive layer allows the generated electrostatic charges to leak quickly and achieve antistatic purposes.
2.The working principle of surface-active antistatic agents
During the molding of polymer materials, if the antistatic agent is contained in a sufficient concentration, when the mixture is in a molten state, the antistatic agent molecules form the densest orientation at the interface between resin and air or resin and metal (mechanical or mold). Arrangement, in which the lipophilic group extends to the inside of the resin, and the hydrophilic group extends to the outside of the resin. After the resin is cured, the hydrophilic groups on the antistatic agent molecules are aligned toward the air side to form a single-molecule conductive layer. During processing and use, after stretching, rubbing, and washing, etc., the antistatic agent molecular layer on the surface of the material will be damaged, and the antistatic performance will also decrease. However, unlike the externally applied antistatic agent, after a period of time, the antistatic agent molecules inside the material will continue to migrate to the surface, so that the defect site can be restored, and the antistatic effect is re-displayed. Since the above two types of antistatic agents achieve antistatic purposes by absorbing environmental moisture and reducing the surface resistivity of materials, they have a greater dependence on environmental humidity. Obviously, the higher the ambient humidity, the stronger the water absorption of the antistatic agent molecules, and the more significant the antistatic performance.
3.The working principle of polymer permanent antistatic agent
Macromolecular permanent antistatic agent is a new type of antistatic agent researched and developed in recent years, which belongs to hydrophilic polymers. When it is blended with a polymer matrix, on the one hand, because of the strong movement ability of its molecular chain, the molecules facilitate the movement of protons, and the electrostatic charges generated by ion conduction are conducted and released; on the other hand, the antistatic ability is through its Reflected in a special dispersion. Studies have shown that: polymer permanent antistatic agents are mainly distributed in the form of fine layers or tendons on the surface layer of the product to form a conductive surface layer, and are almost spherically distributed in the center, forming a so-called "core-shell structure", and This is the path leakage electrostatic charge. Because the polymer permanent antistatic agent reduces the volume resistivity of the material to achieve the antistatic effect, it does not completely rely on the surface to absorb water, so it is less affected by the humidity of the environment.
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